BiobankCell BiologyBio-Analysis

Smooth Muscle Cells

Smooth Muscle Cells are involuntary non-striated muscle. It occurs in the walls of hollow organs such as stomach, intesttines, urinary bladder and uterus and is found in the walls of passageways, such as the arteries and veins of the circulatory system. Furthermore, Smooth Muscle Cells are present in the tracts of the respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems. Smooth Muscle Cells are fundamentally different from Skeletal Muscle Cells and Cardiac Muscle Cells in terms of structure, function, regulation of contraction, and excitation-contraction coupling. Smooth Muscle Cells have a fusiform shape and, like striated muscle, can tense and relax. However, smooth muscle tissue tends to demonstrate greater elasticity and function within a larger length-tension curve than striated muscle. This ability to stretch and still maintain contractility is important in organs like the intestines and urinary bladder.

A substantial portion of the cytoplasm of smooth muscle cells are taken up by myosin and actin molecules, which together have the capability to contract. The smooth muscle is the only type of muscle without the ability to be voluntarily controlled in stressful situations. Smooth muscle-containing tissue needs to be stretched often, so elasticity is an important attribute of smooth muscle. Smooth muscle cells may secrete a complex extracellular matrix containing collagen (types I and III), elastin, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Smooth muscle also has specific elastin and collagen receptors to interact with these proteins of the extracellular matrix. These fibers with their extracellular matrices contribute to the viscoelasticity of smooth muscle tissues.

A smooth muscle is excited by external stimuli, which causes contraction. Smooth muscle may contract spontaneously, via ionic channel dynamics, or special pacemaker’s cells produce rhythmic contractions. Also, contraction, as well as relaxation, can be induced by a number of physiochemical agents such as hormones, drugs, neurotransmitters. Smooth muscle cells in different organs, e.g. airway and lungs, kidney and skin, differ in their expression of ionic channels, hormone receptors, cell-signaling pathways, and other proteins that determine specific organ-related function(s). For instance, blood vessels in skin, gastrointestinal system, kidney and brain respond to Norepinephrine and Epinephrine by producing vasoconstriction, a response that is mediated through Adrenergic receptors. However, blood vessels within skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle respond to these same stimuli producing vasodilation because the smooth muscle possess of these blood vessels express a different class of Adrenergic receptors. Generally, arterial smooth muscle responds to carbon dioxide by producing vasodilation and responds to oxygen by producing vasoconstriction. Pulmonary blood vessels within the lung are unique as they vasodilate to high oxygen tension and vasoconstrict when it falls. Bronchiole, smooth muscle that line the airways of the lung, respond to high carbon dioxide producing vasodilation and vasoconstrict when carbon dioxide is low. These responses to carbon dioxide and oxygen by pulmonary blood vessels and bronchiole airway smooth muscle aid in matching perfusion and ventilation within the lungs. Recent research indicates that Sphingosine-1-Phosphate signaling is an important regulator of vascular smooth muscle contraction.

The mechanism in which external factors stimulate growth and rearrangement of Smooth Muscle Cells is not yet fully understood. A number of growth factors and neurohumoral agents influence smooth muscle growth and differentiation. Proliferation is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and is inhibited by nitric oxide.

 

 

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Products

Ref Products Associated Products Price
CM-1022-112 Cryoconserved Human Umbilical Vein Smooth Muscle Cells (HUVSMC) (>500,000 cells), neonatal Culture Media CM-3022-043 748.00 €
CM-1023-112 Cryoconserved Human Umbilical Artery Smooth Muscle Cells (HUASMC) (>500,000 cells), neonatal Culture Media CM-3022-043 620.25 €
CM-1026-111 Cryoconserved Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells (HAoSMC) (>500,000 cells), adult Culture Media CM-3022-043 850.00 €
CM-1022-162 Proliferating Human Umbilical Vein Smooth Muscle Cells (HUVSMC) (2* T75 flasks), neonatal Culture Media CM-3022-043 1071.00 €
CM-1023-162 Proliferating Human Umbilical Artery Smooth Muscle Cells (HUASMC) (2* T75 flasks), neonatal Culture Media CM-3022-043 858.50 €
CM-1026-161 Proliferating Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells (HAoSMC) (2* T75 flasks), adult Culture Media CM-3022-043 1105.00 €